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A Randomized Clinical Trial of the Effect of Continuous Glucose Monitoring on Nocturnal Hypoglycemia, Daytime Hypoglycemia, Glycemic Variability, and Hypoglycemia Confidence in Persons with Type 1 Diabetes Treated with Multiple Daily Insulin Injections (GOLD-3)

Journal article
Authors Arndis Olafsdottir
W. Polonsky
J. Bolinder
I. B. Hirsch
Hans Wedel
T. Nystrom
M. Wijkman
E. Schwarcz
J. Hellman
T. Heise
Marcus Lind
Published in Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
Volume 20
Issue 4
Pages 274-284
ISSN 1520-9156
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Medicine, Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine
Institute of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Health Metrics
Pages 274-284
Language en
Keywords Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Continuous glucose monitoring, Randomized clinical trial, Hypoglycemia, blood-glucose, impaired awareness, pump therapy, hypocompass, frequency, accuracy, adults, Endocrinology & Metabolism
Subject categories Diabetology


Background: To evaluate the effects of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on nocturnal and daytime hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI); we also evaluated factors related to differences in hypoglycemia confidence in this population. Methods: Evaluations were performed from the GOLD randomized trial, an open-label multicenter crossover randomized clinical trial (n=161) over 69 weeks comparing CGM to self-measurement of blood glucose (SMBG) in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI. Masked CGM and the hypoglycemia confidence questionnaire were used for evaluations. Results: Time with nocturnal hypoglycemia, glucose levels <70mg/dL was reduced by 48% (10.2 vs. 19.6min each night, P<0.001) and glucose levels <54mg/dL by 65%. (3.1 vs. 8.9min, P<0.001). For the corresponding glucose cutoffs, daytime hypoglycemia was reduced by 40% (29 vs. 49min, P<0.001) and 54% (8 vs. 18min., P<0.001), respectively. Compared with SMBG, CGM use improved hypoglycemia-related confidence in social situations (P=0.016) and confidence in more broadly avoiding serious problems due to hypoglycemia (P=0.0020). Persons also reported greater confidence in detecting and responding to decreasing blood glucose levels (thereby avoiding hypoglycemia) during CGM use (P=0.0033) and indicated greater conviction that they could more freely live their lives despite the risk of hypoglycemia (P=0.022). Conclusion: CGM reduced time in both nocturnal and daytime hypoglycemia in persons with type 1 diabetes treated with MDI and improved hypoglycemia-related confidence, especially in social situations, thus contributing to greater well-being and quality of life. Trial registration:, number NCT02092051.

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