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A comparison of temporal variability of observed and model-based pan evaporation over Uruguay (1973-2014)

Journal article
Authors S. M. Vicente-Serrano
M. Bidegain
M. Tomas-Burguera
F. Dominguez-Castro
A. El Kenawy
T. R. McVicar
Cesar Azorin-Molina
J. I. Lopez-Moreno
R. Nieto
L. Gimeno
A. Gimenez
Published in International Journal of Climatology
Volume 38
Issue 1
Pages 337-350
ISSN 0899-8418
Publication year 2018
Published at Department of Earth Sciences
Pages 337-350
Language en
Keywords reference evapotranspiration, evaporation, Penman-Monteith, Uruguay, South America, climate, southern south-america, surface wind speeds, climate-change, reference, evapotranspiration, potential evapotranspiration, temperature extremes, spatial-distribution, united-states, trends, argentina
Subject categories Earth and Related Environmental Sciences


This study analyses variability and trends of atmospheric evaporative demand (AED) across Uruguay in the past four decades. Changes were assessed using pan evaporation measurements from 10 meteorological stations and compared to PenPan model calculations, which is a physically based model that employs meteorological data as input. Results demonstrate a high agreement between the observed AED and those estimated from the PenPan model. Both observations and model estimations agree on a high interannual variability in AED, though being statistically insignificant (p>0.05) at seasonal and annual scales. Given that AED shows high sensitivity to changes in relative humidity and sunshine duration, as a surrogate of solar radiation, the lack of significant trends in the AED observations and estimations over Uruguay can be linked to the insignificant trend found for these climate variables for the period from 1973 to 2014. This is the first study that reports Pan evaporation trends for this part of the world, helping to infill gaps for mid-latitude Southern Hemisphere areas, which are poorly represented in Pan evaporation trends.

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