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The solar wind proton ejection mechanism: Experiments with ultradense hydrogen agree with observed velocity distributions

Journal article
Authors Leif Holmlid
Published in Journal of Geophysical Research-Space Physics
Volume 122
Issue 8
Pages 7956-7962
ISSN 2169-9380
Publication year 2017
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 7956-7962
Language en
Keywords solar wind, ultradense hydrogen, velocity, laser-induced processes, dense deuterium d(0), rydberg matter, coulomb, explosions, clusters, energy, spectra, Astronomy & Astrophysics
Subject categories Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology


Ultradense hydrogen H(0) is a very dense hydrogen cluster phase with H-H distances in the picometer range. It has been studied experimentally in several publications from our group. A theoretical model exists which agrees well with laser-pulse-induced time-of-flight spectra and with rotational spectroscopy emission spectra. Coulomb explosions in H(0) in spin state s = 1 generate protons with kinetic energies larger than the retaining gravitational energy at the photosphere of the Sun. The required proton kinetic energy above 2 keV has been directly observed in published experiments. Such protons may be ejected from the Sun and are proposed to form the solar wind. The velocity distributions of the protons are calculated for three different ejecting modes from spin state s = 1. They agree well with both the fast and the slow solar winds. The best agreement is found for H(0) cluster sizes of 3 and 20-50 atoms; such clusters have been studied experimentally previously. The properties of ultradense hydrogen H(0) give also a few novel possibilities to explain the high corona temperature of the Sun. Plain Language Summary The solar wind contains protons from the Sun with high velocity. The mechanism for their ejection from the strong gravitation at the Sun's surface has been debated for a long time. Protons with high enough energy can be ejected from a condensed form of hydrogen called ultradense hydrogen, which is stable even at the temperature of the Sun. Experiments show that such a mechanism exists. Calculations now give good agreement with the velocities of both the slow and the fast solar winds.

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