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Unexpected high species diversity among European stalked puffballs – a contribution to the phylogeny andtaxonomy of the genus Tulostoma (Agaricales)

Journal article
Authors Mikael Jeppson
Alberto Altés
Gabriel Moreno
R. Henrik Nilsson
Yolanda Loarce
Alfredo de Bustos
Ellen Larsson
Published in MycoKeys
Volume 21
Pages 33-88
ISSN 1314-4049
Publication year 2017
Published at Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences
Pages 33-88
Language en
Keywords Gasteroid fungi, molecular systematics, species diversity hot spot, steppe vegetation, taxonomy
Subject categories Biological Systematics, Biological Sciences


A three-gene data set was generated to explore species diversity and delimitations within the stalked puffballs (Tulostoma, Agaricales) in Europe. Data on species from other parts of the world were included for comparison of species concepts and distribution ranges. Sequence data from 26 type specimens are included. The phylogenetic analyses support Tulostoma as monophyletic. Eleven major clades, 37 minor clades, and 20 single branches were recovered and found to correspond to 30 described species and 27 species without scientific names. Five species are here described as new to science: Tulostoma calcareum, T. calongei, T. eckbladii, T. grandisporum, and T. pannonicum. In total we report 26 described, and 19 undescribed, species from Europe. An epitype for T. fimbriatum with ITS sequence data is selected to fix the name. The recovered tree topology was not in congruence with the current infrageneric classification of Tulostoma, suggesting that many of the morphological characters used for segregation of taxa are plesiomorphic or homoplasious. Spore ornamentation and hyphal structure of the peridium are found to bereliable characters for delimitation of species.

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