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Detection of CO2 leakage from a simulated sub-seabed storage site using three different types of pCO2 sensors

Journal article
Authors Dariia Atamanchuk
Anders Tengberg
Dmitry Aleynik
Peer Fietzek
Kiminori Shitashima
Anna Lichtschlag
Per Hall
Henrik Ståhl
Published in International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control
Volume 38
Pages 121-134
ISSN 1750-5836
Publication year 2015
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 121-134
Language en
Links dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2014.10....
Keywords CCS, QICS, CO2 release, Leakage detection, pCO2 sensors
Subject categories Earth and Related Environmental Sciences

Abstract

This work is focused on results from a recent controlled sub-seabed in situ carbon dioxide (CO2) releaseexperiment carried out during May–October 2012 in Ardmucknish Bay on the Scottish west coast. Threetypes of pCO2sensors (fluorescence, NDIR and ISFET-based technologies) were used in combination withmultiparameter instruments measuring oxygen, temperature, salinity and currents in the water columnat the epicentre of release and further away. It was shown that distribution of seafloor CO2 emissionsfeatures high spatial and temporal heterogeneity. The highest pCO2values (∼1250 atm) were detectedat low tide around a bubble stream and within centimetres distance from the seafloor. Further up in thewater column, 30–100 cm above the seabed, the gradients decreased, but continued to indicate elevatedpCO2at the epicentre of release throughout the injection campaign with the peak values between 400and 740atm. High-frequency parallel measurements from two instruments placed within 1 m fromeach other, relocation of one of the instruments at the release site and 2D horizontal mapping of therelease and control sites confirmed a localized impact from CO2emissions. Observed effects on the watercolumn were temporary and post-injection recovery took <7 days.A multivariate statistical approach was used to recognize the periods when the system was dominatedby natural forcing with strong correlation between variation in pCO2and O2, and when it was influencedby purposefully released CO2.Use of a hydrodynamic circulation model, calibrated with in situ data, was crucial to establishingbackground conditions in this complex and dynamic shallow water system.

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