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Improvement of Ultra-Low Field Magnetic Resonance Recordings With a Multilayer Flux-Transformer-Based High-T-C SQUID Magnetometer

Journal article
Authors Maxim Chukharkin
Alexei Kalaboukhov
Justin F. Schneiderman
Fredrik Öisjöen
Magnus Jönsson
Minshu Xie
O. V. Snigirev
Dag Winkler
Published in Ieee Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Volume 23
Issue 3
ISSN 1051-8223
Publication year 2013
Published at Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology
Language en
Keywords Flip-chip, high temperature superconductors, nuclear magnetic resonance, SQUIDs, superconducting
Subject categories Nano Technology


We have developed a multilayer flux-transformer-based high-T-C SQUID (flip-chip) magnetometer that improves signal-to-noise-ratios (SNR) in ultra-low field magnetic resonance (ulf-MR) recordings of protons in water. Direct ulf-MR-based benchmarking of the flip-chip versus a standard planar high-T-C SQUID magnetometer resulted in improvement of the SNR by a factor of 2. This gain is attributable to the improved transformation coefficient (1.9 vs 5.3 nT/Phi(0)) that increased the signal available to the flip-chip sensor and to the lower noise at the measurement frequency (15 vs 25 fT/Hz(1/2) at 4 kHz). The improved SNR can lead to better spectroscopic resolution, lower imaging times, and higher resolution in ulf-MR imaging systems based on high-T-C SQUID technology. The experimental details of the sensors, calibration, and ulf-MR benchmarking are presented in this report.

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