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Evaluation of a method for isocapnic hyperventilation: a clinical pilot trial.

Journal article
Authors Katarina Hallén
Pether Jildenstål
Ola Stenqvist
Sven-Erik Ricksten
Sophie Lindgren
Published in Acta anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Volume 62
Issue 2
Pages 186-195
ISSN 1399-6576
Publication year 2018
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive care
Pages 186-195
Language en
Subject categories Other Medical Sciences


Isocapnic hyperventilation (IHV) is a method that shortens time to extubation after inhalation anaesthesia using hyperventilation (HV) without lowering airway CO2 . In a clinical trial on patients undergoing long-duration sevoflurane anaesthesia for major ear-nose-throat (ENT) surgery, we evaluated the utility of a technique for CO2 delivery (DCO2 ) to the inspiratory limb of a closed breathing circuit, during HV, to achieve isocapnia.Fifteen adult ASA 1-3 patients were included. After end of surgery, mechanical HV was started by doubling baseline minute ventilation. Simultaneously, CO2 was delivered and dosed using a nomogram developed in a previous experimental study. Time to extubation and eye opening was recorded. Inspired (FICO2 ) and expired (FETCO2 ) CO2 and arterial CO2 levels were monitored during IHV. Cognition was tested pre-operatively and at 20, 40 and 60 min after surgery.A DCO2 of 285 ± 45 ml/min provided stable isocapnia during HV (13.5 ± 4.1 l/min). The corresponding FICO2 level was 3.0 ± 0.3%. Time from turning off the vaporizer (1.3 ± 0.1 MACage) to extubation (0.2 ± 0.1 MACage) was 11.3 ± 1.8 min after 342 ± 131 min of anaesthesia. PaCO2 and FETCO2 remained at normal levels during and after IHV. In 85% of the patients, post-operative cognition returned to pre-operative values within 60 min.In this cohort of patients, a DCO2 nomogram for IHV was validated. The patients were safely extubated shortly after discontinuing long-term sevoflurane anaesthesia. Perioperatively, there were no adverse effects on arterial blood gases or post-operative cognition. This technique for IHV can potentially be used to decrease emergence time from inhalation anaesthesia.

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