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Present and projected future mean radiant temperature for three European cities

Journal article
Authors Sofia Thorsson
D.P. Rayner
Fredrik Lindberg
Ana Monteiro
Lutz Katzschner
Kevin Ka-Lun Lau
Sabrina Campe
Antje Katzschner
Janina Konarska
Shiho Onomura
Sara Velho
Björn Holmer
Published in International Journal of Biometeorology
Volume 61
Issue 9
Pages 1531–1543
ISSN 0020-7128
Publication year 2017
Published at Department of Earth Sciences
Pages 1531–1543
Language en
Keywords Building geometry, Climate change, Downtown built-up areas, Guidelines, Radiant heat load, Trees
Subject categories Climate Research, Geosciences, Multidisciplinary, Physical Geography, Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences


© 2017 The Author(s)Present-day and projected future changes in mean radiant temperature, Tmrt in one northern, one mid-, and one southern European city (represented by Gothenburg, Frankfurt, and Porto), are presented, and the concept of hot spots is adopted. Air temperature, Ta, increased in all cities by 2100, but changes in solar radiation due to changes in cloudiness counterbalanced or exacerbated the effects on Tmrt. The number of days with high Tmrt in Gothenburg was relatively unchanged at the end of the century (+1 day), whereas it more than doubled in Frankfurt and tripled in Porto. The use of street trees to reduce daytime radiant heat load was analyzed using hot spots to identify where trees could be most beneficial. Hot spots, although varying in intensity and frequency, were generally confined to near sunlit southeast-southwest facing walls, in northeast corner of courtyards, and in open spaces in all three cities. By adding trees in these spaces, the radiant heat load can be reduced, especially in spaces with no or few trees. A set of design principles for reducing the radiant heat load is outlined based on these findings and existing literature.

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