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Initial and long-term crestal bone responses to modern dental implants

Review article
Authors Tomas Albrektsson
Bruno Chrcanovic
Per-Olov Östman
Lars Sennerby
Published in Periodontology 2000
Volume 73
Issue 1
Pages 41-50
ISSN 0906-6713
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Odontology, Section 1
Institute of Clinical Sciences, Department of Biomaterials
Pages 41-50
Language en
Subject categories Dentistry


Successful osseointegration is the result of a controlled foreign body reaction to dental implants. Osseointegrated implants have demonstrated excellent long-term survivability, although they may be subject to limited marginal bone loss. Marginal bone loss during the first few years after implant placement seldom represents disease, but is instead the result of an adaptive bone response to surgical trauma and implant loading. It is not uncommon for implants with early marginal bone loss to enter a long-lasting state of bone stability. Extensive bone resorption after the first year is generally due to an exacerbation of adverse body reactions caused by non-optimal implant components, adverse surgery or prosthodontics and/or compromised patient factors. Disease in the form of peri-implantitis is a late complication that affects some implants with suppuration and rapid loss of crestal bone, and is probably caused by bacterial pathogens and immunological reactions. Unfortunately, the literature is not consistent with respect to the type or magnitude of clinical implant problems, including how they are defined and diagnosed. If the peri-implantitis diagnosis is confined to cases with infection, suppuration and significant bone loss, the frequency of the disease is relatively low, which is in sharp contrast to the frequencies reported with unrealistic definitions of peri-implantitis. We suggest that when modern implants are placed by properly trained individuals, only 1–2% of implants show true peri-implantitis during follow-up periods of 10 years or more. Peri-implantitis must be separated from the initial and self-limiting marginal bone loss.

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