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Continuous long-term observations of the carbonate system dynamics in the water column of a temperate fjord

Journal article
Authors Dariia Atamanchuk
Mikhail Y Kononets
P. J. Thomas
J. Hovdenes
Anders Tengberg
Per Hall
Published in Journal of Marine Systems
Volume 148
Pages 272-284
ISSN 0924-7963
Publication year 2015
Published at Department of Chemistry and Molecular Biology
Pages 272-284
Language en
Keywords Carbonate system of seawater, Long-term in situ measurements, pCO(2), Redfield ratio, NPP rates, TOTAL INORGANIC CARBON, LIFETIME-BASED OPTODE, CORE WAVE-GUIDE, BALTIC, SEA, DISSOCIATION-CONSTANTS, PARTIAL-PRESSURE, PROFILING FLOAT, ORGANIC-MATTER, TIME-SERIES, NORTH-SEA, Geosciences, Multidisciplinary, Marine & Freshwater Biology, Oceanography, IGEBRANDT A, 1991, LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, V36, P444, GRANDPRE MD, 1995, LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY, V40, P969
Subject categories Oceanography, Hydrology, Water Resources


A cabled underwater observatory with more than 30 sensors delivering data in real-time was used to study the dynamics of the upper pelagic carbonate system of the Koljo Fjord, western Sweden, from September to April during two consecutive years (2011-2012 and 2012-2013). In the dynamic upper ca 15 m of the water column, salinity and temperature varied by up to 10 and 20 degrees C throughout the recorded periods, respectively. Partial pressure of CO2 (pCO(2)), measured with newly developed optical sensors (optodes) at three water depths (5, 9.6 and 12.6 m), varied between 210-940 mu atm, while O-2 varied between 80-470 mu mol/L. Redfield scaled graphs (Delta O-2:Delta DIC = -1.30), in which DIC was derived from pH or pCO(2) and salinity-derived alkalinity (A(Tsal)), and oxygen was measured by the sensors, were used as a tool to assess timing and occurrence of different processes influencing the dynamics of these parameters. Distinctive short-term variations of pCO(2) and O-2 were induced by either tidal oscillations, wind-driven water mass transport in the mixed layer or occasional transport of deep-basin water from below the thermo/halodine to the surface layer. Intensified air-sea gas exchange during short storm events was usually followed by stabilization of gas-related parameters in the water column, such as O-2 concentration and pCO(2), on longer time-scales characteristic for each parameter. Biological processes including organic matter degradation in late summer/autumn and primary production in early spring were responsible for slower and gradual seasonal changes of pCO(2) and O-2. Net primary production (NPP) rates in the Koljo Fjord were quantified to be 1.79 and 2.10 g C m(-2) during the spring bloom periods in 2012 and 2013, respectively, and ratios of 02 production:DIC consumption during the same periods were estimated to be -1.21 +/- 0.02 (at 5 m depth in 2013), -1.51 +/- 0.02 (at 12.6 m in 2012) and -1.95 +/- 0.05 (at 9.6 m in 2013). These ratios are discussed and compared to previously reported 02:C ratios during primary production. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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