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Consensus paper of the WFSBP Task Force on Biological Markers of Dementia: the role of CSF and blood analysis in the early and differential diagnosis of dementia.

Review article
Authors J Wiltfang
P Lewczuk
P Riederer
E Grünblatt
C Hock
P Scheltens
H Hampel
H Vanderstichele
K Iqbal
D Galasko
L Lannfelt
M Otto
H Esselmann
A W Henkel
J Kornhuber
Kaj Blennow
Published in The world journal of biological psychiatry : the official journal of the World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry
Volume 6
Issue 2
Pages 69-84
ISSN 1562-2975
Publication year 2005
Published at Institute of Clinical Neurosciences, Section of Experimental Neuroscience
Pages 69-84
Language en
Keywords Aged, Alzheimer Disease, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, genetics, Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor, cerebrospinal fluid, Apolipoproteins E, genetics, Biological Markers, blood, cerebrospinal fluid, Consensus, Diagnosis, Differential, Genotype, Humans, Immunoblotting, Microtubule-Associated Proteins, metabolism, Neurons, metabolism, Phosphorylation, Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization, Time Factors, tau Proteins, cerebrospinal fluid
Subject categories Medical and Health Sciences


Aging of population, and increasing life expectancy result in an increasing number of patients with dementia. This symptom can be a part of a completely curable disease of the central nervous system (e.g, neuroinflammation), or a disease currently considered irreversible (e.g, Alzheimer's disease, AD). In the latter case, several potentially successful treatment approaches are being tested now, demanding reasonable standards of pre-mortem diagnosis. Cerebrospinal fluid and serum analysis (CSF/serum analysis), whereas routinely performed in neuroinflammatory diseases, still requires standardization to be used as an aid to the clinically based diagnosis of AD. Several AD-related CSF parameters (total tau, phosphorylated forms of tau, Abeta peptides, ApoE genotype, p97, etc.) tested separately or in a combination provide sensitivity and specificity in the range of 85%, the figure commonly expected from a good diagnostic tool. In this review, recently published reports regarding progress in neurochemical pre-mortem diagnosis of dementias are discussed with a focus on an early and differential diagnosis of AD. Novel perspectives offered by recently introduced technologies, e.g, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) and surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) are briefly discussed.

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