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Well-Being and Diabetes Management in Early Pregnant Women with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Journal article
Authors Karolina Lindén
Carina Sparud Lundin
A. Adolfsson
Marie Berg
Published in International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume 13
Issue 8
Pages no. 836
ISSN 1660-4601
Publication year 2016
Published at University of Gothenburg Centre for person-centred care (GPCC)
Institute of Health and Care Sciences
Pages no. 836
Language en
Keywords type 1 diabetes mellitus, pregnancy, well-being, diabetes management, population-based cohort, psychometric properties, coherence scale, swedish version, problem-areas, hypoglycemia, motherhood, sense, care, questionnaire, Environmental Sciences & Ecology
Subject categories Diabetology, Health Sciences


This paper explores well-being and diabetes management in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in early pregnancy and investigates associations among perceived well-being, diabetes management, and maternal characteristics. Questionnaires were answered by 168 Swedish women. Correlation analyses were conducted with Spearman's correlation coefficient (r(s)). The women reported relatively high scores of self-efficacy in diabetes management (SWE-DES-10: 3.91 (0.51)) and self-perceived health (excellent (6.5%), very good (42.3%), good (38.7%), fair (11.3%) and poor (1.2%)). Moderate scores were reported for general well-being (WBQ-12: 22.6 (5.7)) and sense of coherence (SOC-13: 68.9 (9.7), moderate/low scores for hypoglycemia fear (SWE-HFS 26.6 (11.8)) and low scores of diabetes-distress (SWE-PAID-20 27.1 (15.9)). A higher capability of self-efficacy in diabetes management showed positive correlations with self-perceived health (r(s) = 0.41, p < 0.0001) and well-being (r(s) = 0.34, p < 0.0001) as well as negative correlations with diabetes distress (r(s) = 0.51, p < 0.0001) and hypoglycemia worries (r(s) = 0.27, p = 0.0009). Women with HbA1c levels of <= 48 mmL/mol scored higher in the subscales "goal achievement" in SWE-DES (p = 0.0028) and "comprehensibility" in SOC (p = 0.016). Well-being and diabetes management could be supported by strengthening the women's capability to achieve glycemic goals and their comprehensibility in relation to the treatment. Further studies are needed to test this.

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