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IQ as Moderator of Terminal Decline in Perceptual and Motor Speed, Spatial, and Verbal Ability: Testing the Cognitive Reserve Hypothesis in a Population-Based Sample Followed From Age 70 Until Death

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare Valgeir Thorvaldsson
Ingmar Skoog
Boo Johansson
Publicerad i Psychology and Aging
Volym 32
Nummer/häfte 2
Sidor 148-157
ISSN 0882-7974
Publiceringsår 2017
Publicerad vid Institutionen för neurovetenskap och fysiologi, sektionen för psykiatri och neurokemi
Psykologiska institutionen
Centrum för åldrande och hälsa (AgeCap)
Sidor 148-157
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1037/pag0000150
Ämnesord terminal decline; cognition; cognitive reserve; IQ
Ämneskategorier Gerontologi, medicinsk/hälsovetenskaplig inriktning, Psykologi

Sammanfattning

Terminal decline (TD) refers to acceleration in within-person cognitive decline prior to death. The cognitive reserve hypothesis postulates that individuals with higher IQ are able to better tolerate age-related increase in brain pathologies. On average, they will exhibit a later onset of TD, but once they start to decline, their trajectory is steeper relative to those with lower IQ. We tested these predictions using data from initially nondemented individuals (n = 179) in the H70-study repeatedly measured at ages 70, 75, 79, 81, 85, 88, 90, 92, 95, 97, 99, and 100, or until death, on cognitive tests of perceptual-and-motor-speed and spatial and verbal ability. We quantified IQ using the Raven’s Coloured Progressive Matrices (RCPM) test administrated at age 70. We fitted random change point TD models to the data, within a Bayesian framework, conditioned on IQ, age of death, education, and sex. In line with predictions, we found that 1 additional standard deviation on the IQ scale was associated with a delay in onset of TD by 1.87 (95% highest density interval [HDI; 0.20, 4.08]) years on speed, 1.96 (95% HDI [0.15, 3.54]) years on verbal ability, but only 0.88 (95% HDI [−0.93, 3.49]) year on spatial ability. Higher IQ was associated with steeper rate of decline within the TD phase on measures of speed and verbal ability, whereas results on spatial ability were nonconclusive. Our findings provide partial support for the cognitive reserve hypothesis and demonstrate that IQ can be a significant moderator of cognitive change trajectories in old age.

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