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Estimating species diversity and distribution in the era of Big Data: to what extent can we trust public databases?

Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift
Författare C. Maldonado
C. I. Molina
Alexander Zizka
Claes Persson
C. M. Taylor
J. Alban
E. Chilquillo
N. Ronsted
Alexandre Antonelli
Publicerad i Global Ecology and Biogeography
Volym 24
Nummer/häfte 8
Sidor 973-984
ISSN 1466-822X
Publiceringsår 2015
Publicerad vid Institutionen för biologi och miljövetenskap
Sidor 973-984
Språk en
Länkar dx.doi.org/10.1111/geb.12326
Ämnesord Cinchoneae, data quality, GBIF, occurrence data, Rubiaceae, species richness, SpeciesGeoCoder, BIODIVERSITY INFORMATICS, PLANT DIVERSITY, RICHNESS, ECOREGIONS, PATTERNS, LIMITATIONS, RUBIACEAE, KNOWLEDGE, ISLANDS, GENUS, Ecology, Geography, Physical
Ämneskategorier Fysisk geografi, Ekologi

Sammanfattning

AimMassive digitalization of natural history collections is now leading to a steep accumulation of publicly available species distribution data. However, taxonomic errors and geographical uncertainty of species occurrence records are now acknowledged by the scientific community - putting into question to what extent such data can be used to unveil correct patterns of biodiversity and distribution. We explore this question through quantitative and qualitative analyses of uncleaned versus manually verified datasets of species distribution records across different spatial scales. MethodsAs test case we used the plant tribe Cinchoneae (Rubiaceae). We compiled four datasets of species occurrences: one created manually and verified through classical taxonomic work, and the rest derived from GBIF under different cleaning and filling schemes. We used new bioinformatic tools to code species into grids, ecoregions, and biomes following WWF's classification. We analysed species richness and altitudinal ranges of the species. ResultsAltitudinal ranges for species and genera were correctly inferred even without manual data cleaning and filling. However, erroneous records affected spatial patterns of species richness. They led to an overestimation of species richness in certain areas outside the centres of diversity in the clade. The location of many of these areas comprised the geographical midpoint of countries and political subdivisions, assigned long after the specimens had been collected. Main conclusionOpen databases and integrative bioinformatic tools allow a rapid approximation of large-scale patterns of biodiversity across space and altitudinal ranges. We found that geographic inaccuracy affects diversity patterns more than taxonomic uncertainties, often leading to false positives, i.e. overestimating species richness in relatively species poor regions. Public databases for species distribution are valuable and should be more explored, but under scrutiny and validation by taxonomic experts. We suggest that database managers implement easy ways of community feedback on data quality.

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