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Substantial Decrease in Comorbidity 5 Years After Gastric Bypass: A Population-based Study From the Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry.

Journal article
Authors Sundbom Magnus
Hedberg Jakob
Marsk Richard
Boman Lars
Bylund Ami
Hedenbro Jan
Anna Laurenius
Lundegårdh Göran
Möller Peter
Torsten Olbers
Ottosson Johan
Ingmar Näslund
Näslund Erik
Published in Annals of Surgery
Volume 265
Issue 6
Pages 1166–1171
ISSN 0003-4932
Publication year 2017
Published at Institute of Clinical Sciences, Section for Surgery and Gastrosurgical Research and Education, Department of Gastrosurgical Research and Education
Pages 1166–1171
Language en
Links doi.org/10.1097/SLA.000000000000192...
Keywords bariatric surgery, comorbid disease, depression, diabetes, dyslipidemia, gastric bypass, hypertension, long-term results, obesity, sleep apnea
Subject categories Clinical Medicine

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate effect on comorbid disease and weight loss 5 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery for morbid obesity in a large nationwide cohort. Background: The number patients having surgical procedures to treat obesity and obesity-related disease are increasing. Yet, population-based, long-term outcome studies are few. Methods: Data on 26,119 individuals [75.8% women, 41.0 years, and body mass index (BMI) 42.8 kg/m2] undergoing primary RYGB between May 1, 2007 and June 30, 2012, were collected from 2 Swedish quality registries: Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry and the Prescribed Drug Registry. Weight, remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, depression, and sleep apnea, and changes in corresponding laboratory data were studied. Five-year follow-up was 100% (9774 eligible individuals) for comorbid diseases. Results: BMI decreased from 42.8 ± 5.5 to 31.2 ± 5.5 kg/m2 at 5 years, corresponding to 27.7% reduction in total body weight. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (15.5%–5.9%), hypertension (29.7%–19.5%), dyslipidemia (14.0%–6.8%), and sleep apnea (9.6%–2.6%) was reduced. Greater weight loss was a positive prognostic factor, whereas increasing age or BMI at baseline was a negative prognostic factor for remission. The use of antidepressants increased (24.1%–27.5%). Laboratory status was improved, for example, fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin decreased from 6.1 to 5.4 mmol/mol and 41.8% to 37.7%, respectively. Conclusions: In this nationwide study, gastric bypass resulted in large improvements in obesity-related comorbid disease and sustained weight loss over a 5-year period. The increased use of antidepressants warrants further investigation. Studies with long-term results after bariatric surgery are surprisingly rare, 1–5 especially in the light of the large number of procedures performed worldwide. In most studies there is a 1 to 2-year follow-up, 6 and at such an early point in time, it is impossible to evaluate the true effect of gastric bypass, because patients have just reached their nadir in weight. Moreover, for this group of patients, the longstanding remission of obesity-related comorbidities, for example, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and sleep apnea, are of utmost importance. The Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg) was launched in 2007 as a quality registry for the expanding number of bariatric surgeries in Sweden. 7 In 2015, SOReg contained more than 50,000 bariatric procedures (>98% national coverage), with all 43 operating centers reporting to the registry. There has been an expansion of bariatric surgery, with 3300 bariatric procedures performed in 2008, 4800 in 2009, 7800 in 2010, and 8600 in 2011. There has been a slight decrease in procedures, and currently approximately 7000 performed annually, and approximately 95% of the reported procedures have been primary laparoscopic gastric bypass. 8 Perioperative complication rates (eg, 1.2% leaks) and mortality are low (0.04%), the latter validated with the Swedish Population Register. Regular audits are performed by randomly comparing data in SOReg with patient charts at the surgical centers, demonstrating a high validity with less than 2% incorrect values. 7 Furthermore, by cross-linkage with the national Prescribed Drug Registry (PDR), a 100% follow-up of the occurrence of comorbid disease (defined as medical treatment) can be achieved. The present study reports outcome in weight and obesity-related comorbid disease in a nationwide cohort of 26,119 individuals over 5 years after primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) in Sweden, using the prospective SOReg database with cross-linkage with the PDR.

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